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5 Biases that affect the way we perceive groups

We discard specifics to form generalities

We do this out of necessity, but the impact of implicit associations, stereotypes, and prejudice results in some of the most glaringly bad consequences from our full set of cognitive biases.

Fading Affect Bias

A psychological phenomenon in which information regarding negative emotions tends to be forgotten more quickly than that associated with pleasant emotions.

Negativity Bias

The notion that, even when of equal intensity, things of a more negative nature (e.g. unpleasant thoughts, emotions, or social interactions or harmful/traumatic events) have a greater effect on one’s psychological state and processes than do neutral or positive things.

Related. Loss Aversion


An unfavorable opinion or feeling formed beforehand or without knowledge, thought, or reason.

Implicit Stereotypes

The unconscious attribution of particular qualities to a member of a certain social group. Implicit stereotypes are influenced by experience, and are based on learned associations between various qualities and social categories, including race or gender. Individuals’ perceptions and behaviors can be affected by implicit stereotypes, even without the individuals’ intention or awareness.

Implicit Associations

A person’s automatic association between mental representations of objects (concepts) in memory.

Controversial. This is not a bias, it is an association algorithm.

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