11 Biases that affect the way we comprehend large amounts of information

We reduce events to their key elements

It’s difficult to reduce events and lists to generalities, so instead we pick out a few items to represent the whole.

Suffix Effect

The selective impairment in recall of the final items of a spoken list when the list is followed by a nominally irrelevant speech item, or suffix.

Serial-Position Effect (Serial Recall Effect)

The tendency of a person to recall the first and last items in a series best, and the middle items worst.

Part-List Cuing

The re-exposure of a subset of learned material as a retrieval cue can impair recall of the remaining material.

Recency Effect

The principle that the most recently presented items or experiences will most likely be remembered best.

Primacy Effect

Recalling information presented first better than information presented later on.

Memory Inhibition

The ability NOT to remember irrelevant information. For example, a person trying to remember where he parked his car would not want to remember every place he has ever parked. In order to remember something; therefore, it is essential not only to activate the relevant information, but also to inhibit irrelevant information.

Controversial. This is not a bias, it is a logical information sorting algorithm.

Modality Effect

Term used to refer to how learner performance depends on the presentation mode of studied items.

List Length Effect

The finding that recognition performance for a short list is superior to that for a long list.

Misinformation Effect

When a person’s recall of episodic memories becomes less accurate because of post-event information.

Related. False Memory, Suggestibility

Leveling and Sharpening

Leveling occurs when you hear or remember something, and drop details which do not fit cognitive categories and/or assumptions; sharpening occurs when you hear or remember something, and emphasize details which do fit cognitive categories and/or assumptions.

Peak-End Rule

People judge an experience largely based on how they felt at its peak (i.e., its most intense point) and at its end, rather than based on the total sum or average of every moment of the experience. The effect occurs regardless of whether the experience is pleasant or unpleasant.

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