7 Biases that affect our memory storing capabilities

We store memories differently based on how they were experienced

Our brains will only encode information that it deems important at the time, but this decision can be affected by other circumstances (what else is happening, how is the information presenting itself, can we easily find the information again if we need to, etc) that have little to do with the information’s value.

Tip of the Tongue Phenomenon

The phenomenon of failing to retrieve a word from memory, combined with partial recall and the feeling that retrieval is imminent.

Google Effect

The tendency to forget information that can be found readily online by using Internet search engines such as Google. According to the first study about the Google effect, people are less likely to remember certain details they believe will be accessible online.

Next-In-Line Effect

The phenomena of people being unable to recall information concerning events immediately preceding their turn to perform.

Testing Effect

Also known as Retrieval Practice, Practice Testing, Test-Enhanced Learning

The principle that the most recently presented items or experiences will most likely be remembered best.


A mental condition in which the subject experiences low levels of attention and frequent distraction. It can have three different causes:

A low level of attention (“blanking” or “zoning out”);

Intense attention to a single object of focus (hyperfocus) that makes a person oblivious to events around him or her; Unwarranted distraction of attention from the object of focus by irrelevant thoughts or environmental events.

Levels of Processing Effect

Describes memory recall of stimuli as a function of the depth of mental processing. Deeper levels of analysis produce more elaborate, longer-lasting, and stronger memory traces than shallow levels of analysis.

Related. Processing Difficulty Effect

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